About Liver Health

Polly: According to Julian Whitaker’s newsletter of April 1999, if your liver is not removing toxins fast enough, then the toxins will accumulate in the body and this may result in

“fatigue, aches and pains, difficulty concentrating, and other neurological complaints, skin problems, headaches, autoimmune disorders and overall poor health.”

His list of symptoms sure looks a lot like the symptoms we experience with our “yeast syndrome.” I wonder how many of us do not have dysbiosis, but have instead a poorly functioning liver? Of course, anyone with dysbiosis will be putting a strain on the detoxifying capabilities of their liver. All the poisons that the unwanted yeast or bacteria in your intestines have produced are sent to your liver for detoxification. Eventually, this can lead to a damaged liver and depletion of many nutrients used for detoxification. Even when the yeast and bad bacteria have left, there is often residual damage to the liver. If you are ever to regain your energy, robust health, and mental clarity, you need to focus on your liver’s health as well as that of your intestines. Please note that just because your doctor gave you a test that said your liver enzymes are fine, it doesn’t mean you are detoxing properly. Even if your liver enzymes look good, your liver detoxification pathways can be poor. All of us need to pay attention to the health of the liver.

Marilyn in Seattle: I guess I am just a big fan of liver support. Chinese medicine certainly emphasizes it — calls the liver the gateway to health. In my specific case, I think mercury caused a liver overload. Then the candida was allowed to proliferate, further straining the liver toxic burden. It was a cascade. I am doing liver support a la milk thistle, glutathione, alpha-lipoic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E etc.

Franca: Hmmm… the possibility that what I have is a poorly functioning liver that then created the right circumstances for an opportunistic yeast to set up camp is seriously worth considering. I haven’t had classic candida symptoms, but I have had all these ‘poorly functioning liver’ problems.

Lipoic Acid

Polly: Here is a book that illustrates how very powerful lipoic acid is for healing the liver: The Alpha lipoic Acid Breakthrough by Burt Berkson, MD, PhD. The lipoic acid has done wonders for his patients with any type of liver disease. He has used it to save many patients from liver transplants. This is standard treatment in Europe, but in the USA, they don’t try it. They just give patients their $300,000 liver transplant, and collect the insurance money. This is one of the most sickening comments I’ve ever heard on the greed and politics of the USA health care system. Patient’s lives can become little more than dollar signs or fuel for someone’s political turf. In his book, Dr. Berkson tells how he was ordered to let some patients die an excruciating death rather than try the lipoic acid. He couldn’t stomach that; so he was politically blackballed for disobeying orders and saving their lives.

Lipoic acid is wonderful for liver health, but anyone with heavy metal poisoning should be very careful in how they use lipoic acid. Lipoic acid removes mercury from the body. In the process of removing mercury, damage can be done if the amount of mercury being moved is more than the body can deal with. (See the chapter on mercury detoxification in book 6.) The lipoic acid will affect the disposition of other metals too, and so there are probably other metal poisoning situations (cadmium, aluminum, copper …) where one should be very careful in how they use lipoic acid.

Cholestyramine

Polly: There is a particular cholesterol-lowering drug, cholestyramine, which can remove certain low molecular weight fat-soluble neurotoxins. These toxins are particularly hard to get rid of. The liver may dump these toxins in the intestines for disposal, but the toxins are so small that they are absorbed back into the bloodstream before they have a chance to exit the body. The cholestyramine binds to the toxins and creates a larger molecule that is not absorbed. (See the book Desperation Medicine by Ritchy Shoemaker, MD, or visit his website.)

I heard about a woman who improved greatly with this toxin binding protocol. She was severely environmentally sensitive and had asthma. She had been living out in the desert away from even the electricity that bothers her. Now she is much better and her asthma is gone after starting this protocol. Cholestyramine can also be used to treat psoriasis as demonstrated by E. William Rosenberg, MD.

A nominal amount of cholestyramine mixed with water or juice needs to be taken four times per day on an empty stomach. Don’t take other medications like thyroid at the same time that you ingest the cholestyramine. Wait at least 30 minutes before taking in other food, and preferably wait at least 6 hours before taking your thyroid medication. (Perhaps take the thyroid medication in the morning well before your first dose of cholestyramine.)

Because cholestyramine absorbs bile, the drug can cause constipation. Also, since the bile will not be recaptured by the body (absorbed in the intestines), I would presume that a person may need to pay particular attention to substances that help the body create bile — like taurine, thyroid, and glycine, and/or take a supplement of bile.

According to Dr. Shoemaker, those with Lyme can get very sick on cholestyramine unless they are pretreated for five days with pioglitazone. This is to blunt the reaction to the Lyme toxins coming out of their cells.

Cholestyramine will lower cholesterol, but you don’t want to lower cholesterol levels too much. Fruit will help bring your cholesterol levels up. Since cholesterol is needed to create pregnenolone, I would suggest that a supplement of pregnenolone be considered to mitigate some of the potential adverse affects.

Dr. Shoemaker uses a Visual Contrast Sensitivity (VCS) eye test to discover the presence of neurotoxins. If you flunk this eye test, it is fairly certain that the cholestyramine will be helpful to you. The eye test is available at his site. I took the test and flunked it. Then I took it again at my doctor’s office and flunked it again. So I’m trying the cholestyramine. So far, it has produced subtle changes. In general, my intestines just feel better.

Sally: I had an eye exam yesterday with a local doc and took the opportunity to ask him about the eye test and cholestyramine. He was familiar with both, however in different contexts. He said that years ago, when they first started using this test, the doctors were thrilled as it was a new way to detect cataracts. He had patients arriving with cards you could buy for $2 to test yourself. Indeed it detects a possible neurological disruption, but the disruption can also be from cataracts or other neurological problems not associated with toxins. You can even fail the test if your eye glass prescription is not correct. There is a better more accurate and more expensive version of this test where electrodes are attached to the scalp to detect the actual location of the neurological disruption while taking the VCS test. The wide use of the test with the cards alone was discontinued because it was not specific enough to pinpoint the source of the problem.

I’m thinking the VCS test is a good way to assess progress as toxins are removed, but as a diagnostic test I don’t believe its specific enough to stand alone.

Polly: Dr. Shoemaker talks about using a machine called a Heidelberg Retinal Tomogram Flow Meter to verify the lack of blood flow in the optic nerve. A doctor could use this additional test and/or the patient history and symptoms to come up with the diagnosis of neurotoxins. In my case, I didn’t fail the test because of glaucoma or cataracts. I just had my eyes tested by an ophthalmologist.

Sally: I also questioned him on the use of the cholestyramine to remove toxins. His first response was

“You want to talk about colon cleansing! This stuff will clean out everything, with an accompanying severe diarrhea!”

He said its an old cholesterol lowering drug that has fallen from use due to the associated nutritional deficiencies it causes. He said to really caution anyone that uses this to stay on top of nutritional status. Its the most powerful colon cleanser he knows of and makes enemas and direct colon cleansing look like a walk in the park.

Polly: My PDR (Physician’s Desk Reference) lists constipation as the most common problem with cholestyramine. The constipation may be very severe or even cause impactions. The PDR also warns of severe loss of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Since all of these vitamins have anti-inflammatory properties, and in particular vitamin A is so important for the health of the intestines, I can see how cholestyramine could really set one up for bowel problems. The PDR has a long list of other possible intestinal complaints including the diarrhea that you mentioned. Pre-loading with the fat-soluble vitamins and/or parenteral supplementation may help. The PDR suggested trying the water miscible form of the vitamins. Yet this might not be such a severe problem if the treatment is short term. Often the treatment to remove toxins with cholestyramine is only short term — one to seven weeks. This might be short enough that one could keep the fat-soluble vitamin levels up. So far, the cholestyramine hasn’t bothered me, but I eat a lot of butter, cheese, and milk, and I’ve only been using one packet per day of the cholestyramine. (Before this experiment, my cholesterol reading was 160 — a high cholesterol diet doesn’t equal high cholesterol readings.)

In the book The Cholesterol Myths, the author says that within one year of being on cholestyramine, half the people in the Lipid Research Clinics trial had some sort of gastrointestinal symptom. Some people ended up in the hospital with neurological symptoms. These people were told to cut out the saturated fat like butter, which contains fat-soluble vitamins, and to substitute the polyunsaturated fats. I’ll bet this misguided advice greatly added to their intestinal woes.

It definitely sounds like one must be careful with the cholestyramine. However, even though this drug often causes intestinal problems, it can also cure them. Dr. Shoemaker has found that using the cholestyramine to get rid of the body’s load of toxins has cured the irritable bowel symptoms in many of his patients.

Lecithin And Phosphatidylcholine

Polly: 30% of alcoholics develop cirrhosis of the liver. A small study showed that alcoholics with cirrhosis have leaky gut, while the others don’t. [1] If we have had this yeast syndrome for a long time, perhaps we need to be somewhat concerned with the possibility of having created a fatty liver. Many of us have leaky gut, and we also have been exposed to a yeast toxin called acetylaldehyde, which is the first breakdown product of alcohol.

Lecithin helps remove fat from the liver and improves liver functioning. I saw one suggestion to take one tablespoon of lecithin three times per day for at least 2 months. There are different types and grades of lecithin. In order of increasing quality, these are soy lecithin, egg lecithin, and purified lecithin (phosphatidylcholine). A word of caution — if you purchase lecithin, make sure it is white in color, and keep it in the refrigerator. It goes rancid very easily, and is not good for you if it has changed to a yellow color. There is a possibility that those who are mercury poisoned might find lecithin hard to tolerate unless some vitamin B1 is used with it. (See the section on acetylcholine in book 6 in the chapter on mercury poisoning.)

This article by the Life Extension Foundation says that SAMe has been shown to help get rid of cirrhosis, //www.lef.org/protocols/prtcl-068.shtml. They also gave references and reasons for a long list of supplements that help support the health of a person with a cirrhotic liver. These supplements are milk thistle, lipoic acid, B vitamins (especially B1), antioxidants (vitamin E, C, and coenzyme Q10), zinc, selenium, branch chain amino acids, and amino acids that help remove ammonia. Raymond Peat, PhD mentions that glycine and saturated fats can help reverse the cirrhosis too. [2] The amino acid threonine also helps defat the liver. [3]

Sally: I read a recent study that phosphatidylcholine is shown to reverse cirrhosis of the liver, besides helping neurological functions. Phosphatidylcholine supplements help the liver recover after damage from alcohol, pollutants, viruses, and other toxic agents. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted in which dietary phosphatidylcholine was given to subjects suffering mild or severe liver damage. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation consistently benefited liver healing and significantly shortened time of recovery. Also, it enhances neurological recovery and breaks down cholesterol. Phoschol is the brand my doc recommends. She is very specific about what brands to use for quality, price, and allergic considerations. N.E.E.D.S. mail order carries most of the brands she recommends and phone staff should have a list of these. //www.needs.com

Polly: Alternative Medicine Review has an article on phosphatidylcholine by Paris Kid. According to this article, there are times when phosphatidylcholine may be better tolerated than plain choline. [4]

The Townsend Letter also had a recent article on phosphatidylcholine. Joseph Vitale, MD and David Larson, PhD, told of their research with phosphatidylcholine and the immune system. In spite of the fact that phosphatidylcholine contains a lot of omega-6 fatty acids, the phosphatidylcholine improves the immune response and helps the body get rid of bacteria and fungus. [5] Dr. Vitale’s website is //www.UniversityMed.com.

By the way, Alternative Medicine Review, is a very good magazine. If you can afford $95 for a subscription of 6 issues, it is a good investment. The articles are well written and tutorial in nature. //www.thorne.com However, if you have even a slight problem with multiple chemical sensitivity, you might not be able to tolerate the smell of the slick paper. I’m not that bad off, and I’m totally unable to read an issue when I first get it because of the fumes.

I also like the much more affordable Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. It is $49 for 10 issues. //www.tldp.com There are articles at their website for you to sample. I like the fact that occasionally you will get disagreements between different authors in the Townsend Letter. However, lately I’ve seen much less of that in the magazine and more articles in support of advertisements. At least, the magazine isn’t the total rah-rah hype like what is usually fed to the public. Alternative medicine doesn’t have an answer for everything. I recommend this magazine to everyone.

Bioflavonoids

Polly: An excess of bioflavonoids can be harmful. They may interfere with your liver’s ability to remove estrogen and they might even act as oxidants instead of antioxidants. They can be hard on both the glucuronidation and the sulfation pathways in your liver.

1. Many of the bioflavonoids slow down the glucuronidation of estrogen. [6]

2. If you are mercury poisoned, or low in sulfates, or have a problem with phenol-sulfotransferase like many of the autistic, then you may have difficulty removing the estrogen, bioflavonoids, or phenols via sulfation. Bioflavonoids or any added phenols could become a problem. You may even have to go on a special diet to avoid these. (See autism and attention deficit chapter in book 5.)

3. Many of us are fatigued. Low cellular energy, interferes with the Phase III disposal of sulfated phenolics. In other words, if you are tired, you are more likely than most to have a problem getting rid of estrogen and bioflavonoids.

4. Bioflavonoids aren’t always antioxidants. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that is often tooted as an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. Yet a little quercetin has anti-oxidant properties, but a lot has oxidant properties, at least in vitro. [7]

Quercetin (or quercitin or yellow dye #10) is a bioflavonoid that is advertised as generally non-toxic and beneficial. However, just like other bioflavonoids, it may interfere with the removal of estrogen. It could be particularly harmful when you are estrogen dominant.

“quercetin did not significantly enhance tumour incidence, except that of renal tumours induced by oestradiol in a model in hamsters.” [8]

Quercetin is mutagenic.

“Quercetin increased the frequency of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in liver nuclei of rats in vitro.” [8]

Yet there are always two sides to a story. There may be times when a modicum of bioflavonoids does more good than harm. Those suffering from multiple chemical sensitivities may find that bioflavonoids help them get through the day. Another possible example is with chronic biliary obstruction. [9] When the toxins can’t come out of the liver due to an obstruction in the bile ducts, it may be better to slow down the liver’s function and provide more antioxidants.

I don’t know enough about this to tell you which bioflavonoids and what dose would do the most good while doing the least harm for which person. I do know that one of our forum members, Marie, seemed to get more yeast problems when she took quercetin during the high estrogen part of her cycle. This would be consistent with an increased strain on the liver’s ability to remove estrogen. Another forum member took quercetin and many bioflavonoids for a year, and it seemed to help her with her allergies, but at the end of the year she had an inflamed liver. This is just a warning that although under the right circumstances a little bioflavonoids might be helpful, they aren’t totally benign, and you should think twice about using large doses on a regular basis. Also, look for hidden sources of bioflavonoids. Most Ester C products are packaged with bioflavonoids and therefore might not be tolerated.

Milk Thistle

Franca: A while ago, I took milk thistle, which did help at the time to drastically reduce the allergic reactions I had developed, and improve my general health. It also made me really really lethargic, though. I’m now considering following Polly’s advice and taking some natural thyroid, but I wonder if it will have an effect on my liver (good or bad). Anyone know how the thyroid and liver work together? I’ll go to bed tonight, trying to figure out whether I got a yeast infection that weakened my liver, or whether my weakened liver allowed a yeast infection…

Polly: The health of the liver and thyroid are bound together. A healthy thyroid promotes liver health. And a healthy liver promotes thyroid health. So if you think you need thyroid, go ahead and use it without worrying about it harming the liver. If anything, it should help liver function. (Please start by trying a natural thyroid or a mixture of T3 and T4. Often, just the plain T4 preparations can be hard on the body. Alternative doctors are more likely to prescribe the natural thyroid for you.)

Milk thistle is known for its ability to increase glutathione levels and to improve liver health. However, a possible problem with milk thistle is the fact that it is a bioflavonoid. According to Raymond Peat, PhD,

“Flavonoids and polyphenols, like our own estrogens, suppress the detoxifying systems of the body,” and “Natural estrogens, like other phenolics, including the flavonoids, are also mutagenic.”

So milk thistle probably enhances some aspects of liver function and degrades others. I think things like lipoic acid, phosphatidylcholine and TMG (tri-methyl-glycine) might be better for our liver than milk thistle.

Shelley: Milk thistle is definitely something I stay away from right now — it makes me feel awful. And guess what? So do bioflavonoids…don’t go near ‘em. It’s a “this can’t be the right thing to do at this time” feeling. I know this is personal experience only, but wanted to say I feel just about the same bad on either substance.

Debbie: The one and only time I have had milk thistle tea I went to bed with such a rapid, pounding heartbeat I have been scared to try it again. I’m sure it was a fluke that this happened right after I drank milk thistle tea but has any one had any reactions to milk thistle or any advice to get me to try it again??? Scared in Michigan….Thanks all. I love this forum…

Polly: Debbie, if this isn’t a common occurrence for you, then there is a good chance that the milk thistle caused this. An increase in heart rate following ingestion of a substance is an indication of an allergy to the substance. However, there is also the possibility that it is a reaction to the phenolic compounds in the milk thistle. If you increase the number of phenols that the liver must detoxify, you may end up with symptoms of excess serotonin, dopamine or noradrenaline, etc. My dad said that farm animals will not touch milk thistle. So I assume it isn’t a totally benign substance. I wouldn’t try the milk thistle again, or if you really want to, try 1/4 cup, and measure your pulse rate before and after. Tough call, since many doctors think milk thistle is really great.

Later — Shelley: At first when I tried milk thistle, it made me sick/nauseous, which felt just like a liver issue to me so I stopped. Then I tried it a few months later and I was fine with it. So one thing to remember, is that we are maybe in a hole, *but* are climbing out of it…some things that don’t or won’t work at one time will or won’t later…we keep changing.

Polly: Glad to hear you are getting better. I’ve been doing some reading about milk thistle. Milk thistle is often a disaster for the autistic. They have a weak sulfation pathway. Glucuronidation and this sulfation pathway are the means by which the liver removes milk thistle. [10] Yet curiously, pycnogenols, which are also bioflavonoids, seem to help some of the autistic. So it is a bit of a mystery why some can tolerate one bioflavonoid but not another. Perhaps it has to do with the amount of salicylates in milk thistle compared to the amount in pycnogenols. Salicylates interfere with the PST enzyme, which attaches sulfates to substances. They think that many with autism have a weak PST enzyme.

Milk thistle not only has to be detoxified by the liver, but it has two other undesirable properties. Milk thistle can interfere with mitochondrial respiration and it can strongly inhibit one of the enzymes in Phase I liver detoxification called Cyp3A4. [11] This enzyme is also found in high concentrations at the tip of the villa in the intestines. [12] I wonder if there is any connection between intestinal damage and intolerance of milk thistle?

I’ve not tried milk thistle myself. However, I have tried pycnogenols (grape seed extract and/or pine bark). It is supposed to help with allergies. So when I tried it and got no relief, I was disappointed. Then I read a book where it said the dose was 300 mg per day. That was much more than I had taken before. For me, at this higher dose, the pycnogenols will get rid of a headache induced by inhalants. However, I’ve noticed that if I take some progesterone afterwards, the effect of the pycnogenols dissipates rather quickly. Then I’m stuck with the headache and sensitivity again. I’m guessing that the progesterone causes the liver to get rid of the pycnogenols. I also tried some proanthrocyadins from cranberry, which were supposed to be like the pycnogenols from grape seed extract, only stronger. I’m not allergic to cranberries or the other ingredients in the preparation. However, the formula made me very very sick for 24 hours.

Hepatitis

Paula: I just visited a new doc today. I have hepatitis C liver problems. The new doc is guessing that my dysfunctional liver is not converting T4 to T3 thyroid, causing hypothyroid symptoms in spite of a diagnosis by an endocrinologist of hyperthyroidism.

Polly: Paula, hope your new doctor is able to help you out of this mess. You might be interested in the book The Alpha lipoic Acid Breakthrough by Burt Berkson, MD, PhD. He has all of his hepatitis C patients on alpha lipoic acid and milk thistle. Recently, he has added biologically available selenium. (eg. SelenoMax from Source Naturals or Bio-active Selenium from Solaray.) He has not had any problems with patients using these. Perhaps he hasn’t had a patient who was severely mercury poisoned, because these people are less likely to be able to tolerate these supplements.

One of my doctors is not a liver specialist, but he still has success treating his liver patients with herbs and tri-methyl-glycine (TMG). Lactoferrin has been used as a treatment for hepatitis C. (Lactoferrin is a component of undenatured whey. You can purchase lactoferrin separately from Allergy Research/ Nutricology.) DEWS carries quite a few different substances that improve liver functioning and health too. //www.DEWSnatural.com Anything that supports the Th1 immune system may help get rid of the virus too.

Homeopathic doctors will often employ hepar compositum. Allergy Research / Nutricology carries an herbal product called Eurocel that has been shown to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Changes have been seen within a month, but it may take a year or two to see dramatic differences. Here is a place that carries Chinese herbs that might be helpful. //www.hepapro.com . Lloyd Wright has a new book called Triumph Over Hepatitis C, available from Lloyd Wright Publishing, at website //www.hepatitiscfree.com . He cured himself, and knows of others who were able to heal relatively quickly using similar programs. He does not generally recommend the interferon treatment commonly used by doctors to treat hepatitis C. Instead he suggests employing herbs and vitamins and avoiding heated oils, including those in pasteurized milk. The program that he followed to regain his health included milk thistle, reishi mushrooms, R+ alpha lipoic acid, licorice root, dandelion root, cats claw, aloe vera, vitamin C, alfalfa, NADH, NatCell beef liver extract, and the NatCell brand of frozen thymus extract. (Thymus extract is also important for anyone with yeast overgrowth.) Personally, I’d be somewhat cautious about the amount of alfalfa and licorice used since these are relatively high in phytoestrogens. You can purchase the NatCell brand of thymus or liver from Lloyd Wright’s non-profit company, //www.hepatitiscfree.com . Unfortunately, NatCell thymus is fairly expensive.

Marilyn in Seattle: The June 2001 of Townsend Letter has lengthy/informative article on Hepatitis C treatment. The title is “Herbs and the Alphabet Soup of Hepatitis” by Geoff D’Arcy, Lic Ac. A Chinese formula called Minor Bupleurumis used by 1.5 million Japanese with good success.

Polly: That particular issue of the Townsend Letter is devoted to the topic of dysbiosis. It has many good articles on this topic. You can order single back issues of the Townsend Letter for $7.00. See //www.tldp.com or phone 360-385-6021.

references

1. Keshavarzian A, Holmes EW, Patel M, Iber F, Fields JZ, Pethkar S, “Leaky gut in alcoholic cirrhosis: a possible mechanism for alcohol-induced liver damage.” Am J Gastroenterol 1999 Jan;94(1):200-7

2. Peat R, “Tryptophan, serotonin, and aging” Ray Peat’s Newsletter, January 2002

3. DEWS Twenty-First Century Products, from their Product brochure under description of their BHB product.

4. Kidd M, PhD “Phosphatidylcholine: A Superior Protectant Against Liver Damage” Alternative Medicine Review 1996;1(4):258-274.

5. Vitale J, Larson D, “ABVA-1, Purified Phosphatidylcholine, and Immune Function” Townsend Letter, April 2002

6. Zhu-B-T, Taneja-N, Loder-D-P, Balentine-D-A, Conney-A-H,. “Effects of tea polyphenols and flavonoids on liver microsomal,” J-Steroid-Biochem-Mol-Biol 1998 Feb, VOL: 64 (3-4), P: 207-15

//www.teahealth.co.uk/cgi_gen/resli…000273.htm

7. Stadler RH, Markovic J, Turesky RJ, “In vitro anti- and pro-oxidative effects of natural polyphenols,” Biol Trace Elem Res 1995 Jan-Mar;47(1-3):299-305

8. These quotes are from an article by the IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, of the World Health Organization. //193.51.164.11/htdocs/monographs/Vol73/73-18.html

9. Peres W, Tunon MJ, Collado PS, Herrmann S, Marroni N, Gonzalez-Gallego J, “The flavonoid quercetin ameliorates liver damage in rats with biliary obstruction,” J Hepatol 2000 Nov;33(5):742-50

10. Zhao J, Agarwal R, “Tissue distribution of silibinin, the major active constituent of silymarin, in mice and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes: implications in cancer chemoprevention.” Carcinogenesis 1999 Nov;20(11):2101-8

11. Venkataramanan R, Ramachandran V, Komoroski BJ, Zhang S, Schiff PL, Strom SC., “Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures.” Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Nov;28(11):1270-3

12. Liska, DeAnn J, PhD, “The Detoxification Enzyme Systems,” Altern Med Rev 1998;3(3):187-198 //www.thorne.com/altmedrev/fulltext/detox3-3.html

13. Cutler, PhD, PE, Andrew Hall. Amalgam Illness: Diagnosis and Treatment , Minerva Laboratories, June 1999, page 51

14. Le Rudulier D, Bernard T, Goas G, Hamelin J, “Osmoregulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: enhancement of anaerobic growth and nitrogen fixation under stress by proline betaine, gamma-butyrobetaine, and other related compounds.” Can J Microbiol 1984 Mar;30(3):299-305

15. Mayser P, Imkampe A, Winkeler M, Papavassilis C, “Growth requirements and nitrogen metabolism of Malassezia furfur.” Arch Dermatol Res 1998 May;290(5):277-82

16. //www.usps.gov/judicial/1982deci/12-123.htm A company that sold DMG was penalized for saying that it was “safe to use.” The government gave an example where it wasn’t. “Dr. Herbert and others (CX-12) which, employing the Ames Test, showed dimethylglycine alone is not mutagenic but when preincubated with sodium nitrite to simulate exposure to salivary and gastric nitrites, and tested using appropriate controls, demonstrated a dose-related mutagenic effect.”

17. File SE, Fluck E, Fernandes C, “Beneficial effects of glycine (bioglycin) on memory and attention in young and middle-aged adults” J Clin Psycholpharmacol 1999 Dec;19(6):506-12

18. Bradlow H, “DIM versus I3C Effect on Estrogen Metabolism” Townsend Letter, May 2002

19. Braverman, Eric R., MD, The Healing Nutrients Within; Facts, Findings and New Research on Amino Acids, Keats Publishing, Inc. 27 Pine Street (Box 876), New Canaan, Connecticut 06840-0876, date 1999

20. ibid. Cutler, page 101

21. Scanlan, Nancy, DVM, CVA, “Compromised Hepatic Detoxification in Companion Animals and its Correction via Nutritional Supplementation and Modified Fasting,” Alternative Medicine Review, volume 6, September, 2001

22. ibid. Cutler, page 40 to 42, He also lists many other less familiar substances that either inhibit or induce Phase I or Phase II.

23. Ping S, of the National University of Singapore, “Major Research Interests” //www.med.nus.edu.sg/bioweb/biochem…of-Sit.htm

©2002 by Polly Hattemer, also known as Pauline Hattemer

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